NO. 1 WIRELESS UNIT RAAF
IN AUSTRALIA DURING WW2
The first seven RAAF personnel to be trained as part of No. 1 Wireless Unit in a "special intelligence" course were trained at Victoria Barracks in Melbourne in July 1941. They were the first personnel in No. 1 Wireless Unit which was to be involved in the interception of Japanese Naval and military traffic. The members of the first group trained were:-
Thomas Shirley "Snow" Bradshaw (18574)
Edward Frederick "Ted" Cook (28468)
G. "Taff" Davis
Clarence Lindsay "Clarrie" Hermes (26677)
Alfred Henry "Alf" Towers (23718)
They were all qualified radio operators and extremely proficient in international Morse code. Crosby did not finish the course and the remaining 6 operators were sent to Darwin by 3 September 1941 where "Snow" Bradshaw, as senior NCO, headed the intercept group in Darwin.
They set up two intercept radios (Kingsley AR7's on the top floor of the "Camera Obscura" building at the RAAF Darwin airfield. They worked in continuous 4 hour shifts intercepting Japanese naval "point to point" and "aircraft to ground" traffic from Japanese at the following locations:-
- Saipan (Marianas)
- Truk (Caroline Islands
Their intercepts were sent to the navy cryptology section in Melbourne via RAAF Signals Darwin. They enciphered their messages to Melbourne in a secret cipher before passing them over to the RAAF Signals personnel. This ensured that their intercepts of Japanese Kana code or encoded messages were not apparent to other military personnel to protect the secrecy of their intercept operation.
In the meantime the RAAF began to establish their own small administrative and intelligence group in Melbourne. H. Roy Booth was in charge of this new group. Their task was to start to learn how to process the intercept information sent from Darwin.
The RAAF Kana operators in Darwin intercepted many important transmissions leading up to the attack on Pearl Harbor. The Darwin intercept group was reduced to four due to illness. Jim Wilson had a falling out with Group Captain Scherger after he refused entry to Scherger to their intercept station on the grounds that it was "top secret". Apparently Sherger arranged for Jim Wilson to be transferred south on the grounds that he had gone "Troppo". Ted Cook became sick and was hospitalised.
The early morning shift detected abnormal traffic on the morning of 19 February 1942 from Kendari in the Southern Celebes and between aircraft and possible aircraft carriers. The abnormal traffic was passed on to Group Captain Scherger, the Commanding Officer of RAAF Darwin. Unfortunately no precautions were taken at Darwin on that fateful day. 188 carrier-based aircraft attacked Darwin in the first raid followed by 54 land based bombers in the second raid. There were 243 killed and about 350 injured on this tragic day.
Orders were sent from Melbourne for the four healthy Kana operators in Darwin to disperse to civilian radio stations across the northern parts of Australia as follows:-.
Thomas Shirley "Snow" Bradshaw (18574) - Wyndham, WA
Alfred Henry "Alf" Towers (23718) - Broome, WA
G. "Taff" Davis - Groote Eyelandt, NT
Clarence Lindsay "Clarrie" Hermes (26677) - Groote Eyelandt, NT
Snow Bradshaw was evacuated to Wyndham in Western Australia onboard a De Havilland Rapide. The Rapide was attacked while landing at Wyndham airfield by a flight of Japanese Zeros during the first enemy air raid on the town on 3 March 1942. The crew and passengers abandoned the Rapide, which trundled along the runway on fire. It stopped at the end of the runway where it burnt itself out. A group of nine "Betty" bombers then bombed the Wyndham airfield leaving a number of large mud holes in the runway.
Alf Towers was slightly luckier than Snow Bradshaw. He had departed Wyndham airfield just prior to the Japanese air raid in a Lockheed 10A piloted by Jimmy Wood. They landed at Broome in Western Australia about 30 minutes after a very large Japanese bombing raid on the town in which at least 70 people were killed.
The use of the civilian radios proved totally unsuccessful as the Kana operators could only use the radio receivers when not being used by the civil air radio service. This meant it was impossible to keep a constant watch on Japanese activities.
Then on 7 March 1942, a top secret small RAAF Intercept Station was set up in 2 houses at Pimlico in Townsville under Wing Commander Booth. The two houses backed on to each other, one being at 21 Sycamore Street, Pimlico and the other being at 24 French Street, Pimlico. Operators based in these houses would intercept Japanese wireless signals and break the Japanese KANA code. Radio equipment was installed in No. 24 French Street.
Edward "Ted" Cook was one of the members of No 1 Wireless Unit at French Street. He lived with his wife at Veilmot Flats at 74 Flinders Street which Ted told me was opposite the location where the Magnetic Island boat operated from.
Location of houses used in French Street and Sycamore Street, Pimlico
On 25 April 1942, No. 1 Wireless Unit formed in nucleus to Establishment HD-159 at 24 French Street, Pimlico in Townsville under the temporary command of Flight Lieutenant William Clement "Clem" Blakeley (03304). It was under the administration of Headquarters, North Eastern Area. No 1 Wireless Unit was one of the many Field Units that intercepted Japanese coded transmissions for General Douglas MacArthur's new joint American-Australian Sigint organisation called Central Bureau at 21 Henry Street in Brisbane .
The newly named No. 1 Wireless Unit initially comprised 7 RAAF, 1 AMF and 3 United States Army personnel. The Acting Adjutant was Pilot Officer Eric Clifford Hattam (253513) and the Intelligence Officers were Pilot Officer Harold Herbert Leo Montefiore (254182) and Guy Campbell Bryce (254145). Lieutenant Reuben Clifford Mann (VX150386) of the Australian Army was attached to No. 1 Wireless Unit for Intelligence Duties. Captain H. Brown and four other US Army Signal Corps personnel were attached for Signal duties.
Wireless equipment was installed in 24 French Street by 29 April 1942 and operations began immediately. The members of No 1 Wireless Unit and the attached personnel were temporarily accommodated in Nos 24, 25 and 26 French Street and Nos 3 and 21 Sycamore Streets after the houses were impressed by RAAF Hirings Officer, Headquarters, North Eastern Area, Townsville.
On 31 May 1942 there were 6 RAAF Officers, 1 US Officer, 2 Australian Army Officers, 11 airmen, 16 WAAAFs and 3 enlisted men from US Forces on strength with No. 1 Wireless Unit.
Flight Lieutenant William Clement "Clem" Blakeley (03304) left No. 1 Wireless Unit on 1 June 1942 and returned to Air Force Headquarters (D. of Sigs). Pilot Officer John Dallas Walsh (295645) arrived on posting for Adjutant's duties on 11 June 1942.
Pilot Officer Harold Herbert Leo Montefiore (254182) was appointed temporary Commanding Officer on 27 June 1942. Pilot Officer Eric Clifford Hattam (253513) was departed for Air Force Headquarters on 9 July 1942 to undertake No. 14 Intelligence Officers Course.
An extra 33 RAAF airmen had been attached to No. 1 Wireless Unit by 30 June 1942. Pilot Officer John Dallas Walsh (295645) was posted to Air Force Headquarters on 10 August 1942 to undertake No. 15 Intelligence Officers Course.
On 7 September 1942 Telegraphists, Corporal Clarrie Hermes and Acting Sergeant Alf Towers, departed Townsville for attachment to Headquarters at Ascot Vale in Victoria..
Wing Commander Henry Roy Booth (261929)
|In February 1999, 24 French Street, Pimlico, was the residence of Syd and Alice Bennett. Syd told me that the wireless equipment was located in their house. They bought the house off Mrs May Mulraney. At the time that the house was commandeered by the RAAF, a taxi driver called Gibson was renting the house. 21 Sycamore Street was damaged in Cyclone Althea and has now been replaced by two low set flats.|
|24 French Street, Pimlico during World War 2. Note the tents pitched on the other side of the road and the large truck parked outside the house. Photo supplied by Keith Carolan, an ex member of No. 1 Wireless Unit.|
Photo:- via Simon Lardner
Tents across the road from 24 French Street
Photo:- via Simon Lardner
LAC Ronald Clifton Courtney (55923) outside his tent opposite 24 French St.
LAC Ronald Clifton Courtney (55923) was a member of No. 1 Wireless Unit RAAF and was quartered in tents across the road from 24 French Street, Pimlico (see above photo). Unfortunately LAC Ronald Courtney died in 6 RAAF Hospital in Victoria on 22 December 1943 and was buried in Springvale War Cemetery near Melbourne.
A very poor photo of No. 21 Sycamore Street, Pimlico
|26 French Street, Pimlico - Syd Bennett told me that this was the cookhouse for No. 1 Wireless Unit. Syd told me that there were tents across the other side of French Street from their house, possibly where 25 French Street is located. It is not known whether the houses in French or Sycamore Streets have been renumbered.|
|26 French Street during World War 2. Note the large truck parked outside the house. Photo supplied by Keith Carolan, an ex member of No. 1 Wireless Unit.|
A very poor photo of No. 3 Sycamore Street.
On 16 September 1942 Signals Operations transferred from 24 French Street to the new Operations Room at Stuarts Creek. They were located in a large concrete bomb-proof building or bunker camouflaged as a farm house in an isolated area in the bush past the suburb of Stuart. A dummy set of stairs led up to a dummy door painted on the solid concrete wall of the bunker. Imitation windows and verandah were also painted on the concrete walls. There was a Generator Room bunker located semi-underground near the front of the main bunker. The main bunker was air-conditioned.
The Intelligence Section transferred from Headquarters, North Eastern Area in Sturt Street to the main bunker at Stuart on the same day. Ted Cook of 1 Wireless Unit RAAF worked as a Pit Chief in the bunker. He told me that there were at least 4 rooms as follows:-
The personnel were housed at Roseneath, a rail stop 15 km out of Townsville for security reasons. The unit headquarters consisted of a permanent building, with the WAAAF sleeping huts and cold water ablutions across a paddock from the main camp area.
No. 1 Wireless Unit Intelligence and Intercept
Operations Room at Stuart,
Townsville in 1943 where operators broke the Japanese secret Kana code.
It was a concrete bomb-proof building camouflaged as a farm house
Location of No. 1 Wireless Unit Bunker not far from the Koala Ordnance Service Centre
Location of the previous No. 1 Wireless Unit Bunker where the Copper Refinery is now located
Location of the No. 1 Wireless
Unit bunker, and their Camp area.
No. 3 Fighter Sector Headquarters bunker can also be seen.
The 52 AWAS camp was immediately south of the No. 1 Wireless Unit Camp
Bunkers in the Stuart and
Roseneath areas during WW2
Click on the hyperlinks on the above map to go to the relevant home page
Captain H. W. Brown and two enlisted men of the US Army Signal Corps ceased their attachment to No. 1 Wireless Unit on 14 November 1942.
On 3 December 1942 Pilot Officer Gordon Samuel Davis (36818) of Central Bureau arrived on attachment for Signal Duties. He had been a Telegraphist in the Royal Australian Navy before WWII.
On 7 December 1942 administration and control of No 1 Wireless Unit transferred from Headquarters, North Eastern Area to Headquarters, No. 22 Base Wing.
On 8 January 1943, Flying Officer Guy Campbell Bryce (254145), Pilot Officer Gordon Samuel Davis (36818) and a party of 17 airmen were detached to No. 9 Operational Group, Port Moresby, as No. 1 Wireless Unit Forward Detachment for No. 1 Wireless Unit duties. Flying Officer Bryce was placed in charge of the detachment.
On 29 January 1943, Pilot Officer Harry Wilfred Prothero Newall (266560) arrived for Intelligence duties on attachment from Central Bureau. was appointed the o
On 10 February 1942, Flight Lieutenant Harold Herbert Leo Montefiore (254182) finished his acting duties and was appointed as the Commanding Officer of No. 1 Wireless Unit.
Pilot Officer William Thomas Taylor departed for Julia Creek on temporary Signals Duty on 20 February 1943. On the same day Flight Lieutenant W. Wells, Staff Officer Organization, No. 22 Base Wing, and the Commanding Officer of No. 1 Wireless Unit inspected the new camp site at Roseneath.
On 23 February 1943, Wing Commander Thompson, Area Signals Officer, Squadron Leader Simmonds and Flight Lieutenant Meyers of No, 12 Signals Unit accompanied by the Commanding Officer of No. 1 Wireless Unit inspected the Operations Building at Stuart Creek.
On 8 March 1943, one WAAAF Corporal and eleven Aircraftwomen arrived on posting from No. 1 Reserve Personnel Pool.
On 12 March 1943, Flight Lieutenant Montefiore travelled by aircraft to visit No. 1 Wireless Unit's Forward Detachment in Port Moresby. Flying Officer D.W. Burbidge was appointed temporary Commanding Officer during the CO's absence.
The Japanese were never aware that their ground to air radio contact was being intercepted by the operators at No. 1 Wireless Unit. Absolute secrecy was essential. Any contact with the outside world was via Roseneath. Staff worked together and took their leave together in case a stray word to another operator revealed the secret nature of their operation.
Sgt Edward "Ted" Cook was one of the instructors who taught the new members of 1 Wireless Unit at Central Bureau's location in a large house called "Nyrambla" at 21 Henry Street, Ascot in Brisbane.
"Nyrambla" 21 Henry Street, Ascot
The following Photos were supplied by Ted Cook
via his daughter Kathryn Joslin.
All photos except for one, were taken at 21 Henry Street, Ascot
|Back Row: R.D Boughen. L.
Middle Row: K. Gregg. S. Morris. T. Harvey
Front Row: Cpl. D. Tapper, Sgt. F. Slattery, F/Sgt. E. Cook, Unknown, Cpl. K. Myers
|Back Row: R. Quast, Unknown,
Unknown, Unknown, Unknown, Unknown, Mabb, Cleal
Middle Row: Unknown, Farquharson, Unknown, Unknown, Unknown, Lee, Unknown, Unknown
Front Row: Sgt. Pat Albion, Sgt P. Hay, Sgt. W.T. Stead, F/Lt. W. Clark, Sqn Ldr H. Booth, F/Lt Linton, F/Sgt Ted. Cook, Sgt. F Slattery
|Back Row: R. Keast, Unknown,
Unknown, Unknown, Williams
Middle Row: All Unknown.
Front Row: Cpl R. Kay, F/Sgt E. Cook
|Back Row: Unknown, Unknown,
Front Row: Unkown, F/Sgt E. Cook, Unknown
|Back Row: Unknown, Borrett,
Third Row: Deer, Unknown, Smith
2nd Row: All Unknown
Front Row: F/Sgt E. Cook, Sgt J. Jaffrey
|Back Row: Unknown,
Unknown, Desmond Nugent, Percival Clarence Millar, Unknown, Unknown (half way between the
Back & Middle Row)
Middle Row: Sgt P. Hay, Sgt J. Jaffrey
Front Row: Sgt F. Slattery, Sgt Alf Towers, F/Sgt E. Cook, Sgt T. Stead, Sgt P. Albion
|Back Row: William
Henry Pickard (138692), Unknown, Unknown
Middle Row: All Unknown
Front Row: Sgt Alf Towers, Cpl D. Tapper, F/Sgt E. Cook, Cpl K. Myers
Harry Dornan, John Lloyd, Keith Barkell
Middle Row: Norman Rolfe, Desmond Ryan, Max McCredie, Ernie Davie
Front Row: Sgt P. Hay, F/Sgt E. Cook, Sgt. J. Jaffrey
|Back Row: Stan
Harper (standing on a pillar!), Colin J. Brackley, B. 'Spud' Murphy,
W. "Bill" Adair, Stan Chequer,
Middle Row: Alwyn Petherbridge, Dennis Moore, Mac Reid
Front Row: Sgt F. Slattery, Sgt J. Jaffrey, F/Sgt E. F. "Ted" Cook, Sgt. T. Stead, Sgt Alf Towers
|Back Row: All unknown
Third Row: All unknown
Second Row: Stanley Dunstone, rest unknown
Front Row: Cpl D. Tapper, Sgt F. Slattery, F/Sgt E. Cook, Cpl K. Myers
Sergeant Joy Linnane wrote in the 1980's:-
Here [at Stuart] we concentrated on air-ground activity. Each operator was given a frequency to monitor and as Jap planes took off from their bases [in and around New Guinea] and sent messages from the air back to them, we intercepted the messages, the D/F located their positions, the interpreters and code people extracted the information and in a matter of minutes, the nearest Squadrons were alerted and flew out to defend and attack. Quite often an operator could follow right through to the Kana "I am being attacked" signal and perhaps silence thereafter.
Photo:- via Ben Eagleton
Training at Ascot Vale, Victoria:-
L. to R. Back Row:- Phyllis Brownson, Dawn McMahon,
Front Row:- Joy Linnane, Molly Lask, Nancy Roberts
Standing at right:- Joyce Charles
Ben Eagleton told me that his mother Nancy Eagleton (nee Roberts) was an operator with No. 1 Wireless Unit.
No. 1 Wireless Unit is featured in a book called "The Eavesdroppers", by Jack Bleakley, ISBN 0 644 22303 0.
The two bunkers were demolished with great difficulty in 1957 to make way for the Townsville Copper Refinery which is now owned by Glencore. A considerable amount of gelignite was required to demolish the bunkers. So much so, that the force of the explosion caused some cracks to form in the outer walls of the nearby Stuart Creek Prison.
At a WWII talk that I delivered at the Royal United Services Institute Queensland Inc. (RUSI) at Victoria Barracks in Brisbane on 20 June 2012, I met a gentlemen who told me that he and his friend were the two people who were tasked with demolishing the No. 1 Wireless Unit bunkers in 1957 to make way for the new Townsville Copper Refinery. The two men were John Saint-Smith, who was appointed Manager of TREB in April 1954 and his Chief Engineer, Doug Moffett. I checked the WWII Nominal Roll and John was former Lt. Col. John Cecil Saint-Smith QX6170 of 2/14th Field Company. A search of Trove showed that John Cecil Saint-Smith was General Manager at the Copper Refinery in October 1961.
Photo:- supplied by Glencore
The main bunker at the left and
bunker at the right in 1957 just prior to demolition
Clarrie Hermes was one of the first members of Australian Secret Intelligence Service ASIS when it was formed in 1952. He was sent to London shortly after for training with the British Secret Intelligence Service MI6. In about 1957 he became disillusioned with ASIS and went into private practice as a solicitor in Adelaide. He then took a similar position in Canberra in 1963 going on to became Canberra's Chief magistrate and a local Canberra identity. There is an oval in Canberra named after Clarrie and there is also a major road on the north side of Canberra named after him. Clarrie Hermes stood for the ACT legislative assembly as a Liberal when Gough Whitlam was Prime Minister. One of Gough's quick witted comments about Clarrie went something like this - "That Canberra needs a Hercules rather then a Hermes". Clarrie passed away on 24 January 1991.
RAAF Signals Operator
worked at an "off limits" HF/DF station
on Woolcock Street near Garbutt airfield
E-mail from Chris
His friend Rod Trower is the son of
a member of No. 1 Wireless Unit
ON ULTRA ACTIVE SERVICE
The Story of Australia's Signals Intelligence Operations during World War II
By Geoffrey Ballard
THE RAAF WIRELESS UNITS1 WIRELESS UNIT
The Unit achieved its first tactical success during the short period of air raids onTownsville, giving up to seven hours' warning in advance to the local Air HQ.
In January, 1943, a forward detachment of 1 Wireless Unit went to Port Moresby where it took over the Naval Air commitment from the Army 55 Wireless Section. The ensuing months proved to be the most successful air-raid warning period in the history of the RAAF Wireless Units and provided classic examples of the effectiveness of "Sigint" in a tactical operational role. Air Raid No. 106 on Port Moresby on 12 April, 1943, was an outstanding example of this. The enemy aircraft engaged in the attack left Kavieng (New Ireland) and Rabaul (New Britain) and a warning was passed to the authorities at Buna and Port Moresby before the aircraft had even reached the north coast of New Guinea. The resulting interception by Allied aircraft was most effective, one third of the enemy planes being destroyed.
Early in 1943, a draft of WAAAF signallers was posted to 1 Wireless Unit atTownsville and they included Joy Linnane who tells a colourful story about her recruitment, training and experience:-
Townsville, where we were barracked first at St. Anne's and then at the bush camp at Roseneath, living under primitive conditions. The operations room was located in an isolated area near Stuart. This was a remarkable building, camouflaged as a farm-house, and inside furnished most impressively with all the sophisticated equipment necessary to a first class intelligence establishment. There were D/F and teleprinters, scrambler phones, plotting tables and dozens of radio sets.
Quite early in the formation of the RAAF Wireless Units, a decision was made to include WAAAF pre-trained W/T operators......
Eventually, in early 1943, we were posted to 1 Wireless unit,
We were small "cogs", doing 8 hour shifts, each radio receiver covering a different frequency. We intercepted air/ground and air to air messages, sent by enemy aircraft often on their way to bomb our bases. As each message was intercepted, it was quickly passed into the intelligence room. Enemy aircraft positions were fixed by D/F and warnings forwarded to the targeted areas. It was always a great satisfaction to operators when enemy aircraft signalled - "I am being attacked", and we knew our warnings had got through and Allied squadrons were on the job.
We were a dedicated group and gained great satisfaction from our work. We had lots of fun, too - dances in the rec. hut, swimming, trips to Magnetic Island, but always with our own unit.
As the action moved away, the RAAF intercept operators went on to land with invasion forces in the Philippines. The WAAAF were posted to Central Bureau in Brisbane and we continued to work with that organisation. There we ended our service. It was a tremendous experience, and friendships made then endure to this day.
In August, 1943, the rest of 1 Wireless Unit arrived in Port Moresby and took over the Army Air commitment from the Army 55 Wireless Section.
I received the following e-mail from a former class mate on 26 July 1998:-
Liked the sites. I have a friend here in Dubai whose father was with No 1 Wireless Unit, the RAAF radio intercept unit based first at French Street and later out at Stuart. It was this unit that intercepted the Japanese bombers' departure messages from Rabaul and allowed the P-39's to be airborne and at altitude in time to intercept the incoming Emilys. (The RAAF radio operators took down the Japanese Kana Morse messages verbatim and it was then decoded to straight Japanese and then to English.) The USAAF claimed that they had shot down the Emily they damaged on one such intercept. However, the RAAF unit intercepted its safe landing report at Rabaul the next morning. The American pilot was still credited with the 'kill', both for the propaganda/morale value and more importantly because the RAAF couldn't admit to the world that they were reading the Japanese forces' mail!
The book about the intercept unit gives an amusing account of the concrete block house built at Stuart to resemble a 'Queenslander' wooden house. Some clown mounting a mock attack on the building ran up the steps and nearly brained himself trying to open the 'door'. This block house was located on the site of the present day copper refinery and it was destroyed, (not without some difficulty), when the refinery was built. I understand that it took quite a quantity of explosives to remove it.
Regards Chris Young
Subject: No.1 Wireless Unit
Date: Fri, 26 Jan 2001 12:19:09 +1100
From: Brian Coleman <email@example.com>
Do you have any information on No.1 Wireless Unit at Jacky Jacky, Higgins Field, Cape York. I have a friend whom I meet every 2nd month at a Camping Rally, who served with No. 1 Wireless Unit RAAF, at Higgins, as a wireless intercept operator decoding KANA. I noticed that there was no reference to Higgins in the No.1 Unit information.
I'd like to thank Nadine Roberts, Steve Meekin, Alissa Bradley and John Lloyd for their assistance with this web page.
I'd like to thank Annette Beasley (nee Nugent) for her assistance with this web page. Annette is the daughter of Desmond Nugent who enlisted on 18 August 1943 just after his 18th birthday, and was at Signal School 30 September 1943, and served with the No 2 and No 3 Wireless Unit, and spent about 18 months in Batchelor, NT.
I'd like to thank Simon Lardner for his assistance with this web page. His uncle LAC Ronald Courtney (55923) served with No. 1 Wireless Unit RAAF at French Street, Pimlico.
"The Eavesdroppers - The best kept secret
of World War 2"
by Jack Bleakley
National Archives Australia References
DWB [Director of Works and Buildings] - Property - Townsville Qld - Number 1 Wireless Unit - Stuart Junction - Disposal of surplus assets
|Contents date range
1946 - 1950
Department of Air - Telegraph channel - North Eastern Australia W/T station Rooneys Building Townsville - number 1 Wireless Unit Camp, Stuart - Queensland [7 pp]
|Contents date range
1944 - 1945
WWII Bunker Tour of Townsville
Can anyone help me with more information?
"Australia @ War" WWII Research Products
© Peter Dunn 2015
This page first produced 10 July 1998
This page last updated 07 September 2023